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(Protestant Exodus date) in Canaan to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan from Egypt and _cannot_ have been written by an eye-witness whether that be Moses or someone else. The latter number came into existence no earlier than the 12th century B. The Pentateuch and its Exodus narratives use 22 letters not the 30 letters of Moses' days.

We "know" Moses did _not_ write the Exodus account because it is presented in the third person format. The sites enumerated in Numbers 33:1-50 were most probably sites known to the narrator who wrote the account in the 7th/6th century B. so they most likely were in existence in his day (some may have been abandoned in his days while others were occupied but they did "exist" at least physically).

With this archaeological and topographical information about Hebua in mind, the meaning of Exodus is now clear.

The way to the coastal highway had an insurmountable barrier, the fortress Tjaru..."I understand that the Bible's "internal chronology" suggests the Exodus was the Hyksos expulsion of circa 1540 B. They most likely fled along "the way of Horus" (biblical "way to the land of the Philistines") to Sharuhen near Gaza, the Egyptian army later pursued and defeated them at this location (Tell el Ajjul).

Sinai being traditionally Gebel Musa near Saint Catherine's Monastery).

Some conservative Catholic scholars date the Exodus to 1512 B. while some conservative Protestant scholars date it to 1446 B. on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1 statement that Solomon built the Temple 480 years after the Exodus. Hoffmeier appears to deny the biblical reason for Israel's not taking the way of the Philistines, was fear of Philistines, he claims that an Egyptian fortress guarded this track and Israel feared the Egyptian garrisons rather than Philistines:"Based on the archaeological, historical, and environmental data now available, the identification of Hebua with ancient Tjaru seems likely...

We have established that the account was written not earlier than the 7th/6th century B. because some of the sites mentioned did not come into existence until that time frame. He probably did not realize that some of these sites did not exist or were abandoned at the time he "thought" the Exodus occurred (1512/1446 B. It thus follows that even if one could satisfactorily identify a chain of sites or ruin heaps or tells in existence by 7th/6th century B. extending from Egypt across the Sinai to the Negev and Canaan these sites still would _not_ constitute the "real" route of the Exodus as it would have been most probably the way to the land of the Philistines following the shore of the Mediterranean Sea because there were no Philistines to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan in 1512/1446/1260 B. Besides the fact that the Bible (Old and New Testaments) in various books suggests for some scholars different dates for the Exodus, the single most important impediment in establishing a date for the Exodus is Archaeologists' failure to find a period when _all_ the sites mentioned in the narratives were in existence at the same moment in time.

This means that the biblical narrator and his audience were _unaware_ that there were no Philistines for Israel to fear and thus no need to have Israel travel south to the Red Sea (gulf of Suez) and the southern Sinai (Mt.Similarly, the narrative of Israel's defeat of Sihon and the capture of his capital city of Heshbon would fit better the archaeological history of this site during the Iron II rather than the Late Bronze-Iron I period.This does not mean that the present writer denies that there are older traditions behind the biblical narratives.However, recent archaeological evidence indicates that opposition to such a passage would be understandable during the Iron II period.Thus, the narratives relative to the Exodus best fit the settlement history of the area during the Iron II rather than the previous two archaeological periods.

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